ABSOLUTISMO

35130_414299762277_563337277_4341289_1919074_n.jpgEl absolutismo es el sistema político que adoptaron los principales Estados modernos europeos desde el siglo XV frente a los resabios del sacro imperio y al papado y en donde la máxima autoridad se confiere a solo un individuo o grupo, el rey y su corte. Además no posee un ordenamiento de leyes escritas, existen organismos colegiados que son llamados siempre por el rey, hay tribunales centrales provinciales pero su dictamen siempre está sometido a la palabra del monarca; y los ciudadanos, sometidos a una profunda división en estamentos, carecen de derechos.

En muchos casos el absolutismo tuvo como justificación el hecho de que el rey recibe el poder de Dios y sólo a Dios tiene que dar cuenta de sus actos. Por ejemplo el inglés Thomas Hobbes en su obra Leviatán (1651) plantea que los individuos delegan en el monarca el derecho a gobernar y éste ejerce la totalidad de las funciones políticas.

El mejor ejemplo se encuentra en el reinado de Luis XIV de Francia. Su declaración "L'Etat, c'est moi" ("El Estado soy yo") resume con precisión el concepto del derecho divino de los reyes.

Una serie de revoluciones burguesas que comenzaron en Inglaterra (1688) y cuyo punto cúlmine fue la la Revolución Francesa, símbolo de la caída del Antiguo Régimen, fueron forzando poco a poco a los monarcas de Europa a entregar su poder a gobiernos parlamentarios. 

Más:

Video. El Palacio de Versalles

Libro. El estado absolutista. Perry Anderson

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